Black History Shared Destiny

advent 3

Black History Month, or National African American History Month, is an annual celebration of achievements by Black Americans and a time for recognizing the central role of Black people in U.S. history. Since 1976, every U.S. president has officially designated the month of February as Black History Month. Other countries around the world, including Canada and the United Kingdom, also devote a month to celebrating Black history.

Race relations in the United States have been fraught with trouble and a constant source of division in the Christian tradition as a direct result of the Maafa and the deplorable and barbaric system of slavery. It is true that race is an artificial social construction, deliberately imposed upon people to secure their exploitation. In America it has always been an unequal relationship between social aggregates, and in being so, whiteness as a racial identifier is a mark of privilege (Douglas 1999). Known as America’s original sin, slavery and all of its subsequent forms and issues profoundly divided the church. From the beginning of the American slave trade, many slaveholders justified stealing Africans from their homes and enslaving them with claims that they were evangelizing heathens (Douglas, The Black Christ 1994).  These slaveholders rationalized that the brutality of slavery was outweighed by the assurance of salvation. The Black church and Black liberation theology, born from the atrocities of slavery, are among the greatest gifts this nation has given our global community. From the very beginning the slave undertook the redemption of the religion that the master profaned in his midst (J. Cone 2011).

While the whole of the Black church tradition has been instrumental in being a prophetic witness of gospel values, Black liberation theology offers the whole Christian community language about the way Jesus shows up on the side of the marginalized and dispossessed. Black theology recognizes that God, through Jesus Christ and the presence of the Holy Spirit, works with the poor as they learn to love themselves enough to practice their total freedom and create full humanity on earth as it is in Heaven (Hopkins 1999).

In the larger history of Christian theological reflection, Black liberation theology has endeavored to give substance and systemic expression to a theological perspective that sees the work of salvation in the broadest of terms. This work underscores the theme of liberation as the central message of the gospel and the essential work of the church (Warnock 2014). Early Black Liberation theologians needed to find a means to relate the Christian Gospel to the Black experience in a way that did not condemn Black people’s responses to their oppression. These early theologians were working to force theologians from—and the general body of the dominant culture to deal with—Black people’s particularities set in a white supremacist system undergirded by patriarchy (Douglas 1994).

Because Black liberation theology emancipates Black people from white racism by its affirmation of Black humanity, it provides authentic freedom for Black people, white people, and ultimately all people (Lincoln 1974). Black liberation theology asserts that if we are to take seriously the doctrine of imago Dei, then we must recognize that in the created order no individual or group can be held as privileged to “other” another; no racial construct, or premise for marginalization is valid.  The gift of Black liberation theology is that, for all people, it resists all forms of supremacy. As we consider Black History Month, no matter the ethnic composition of your own local parish, it is incumbent upon us to look at the gift of Black liberation theology and seek to understand the way in which it is able to speak to our congregations. The themes of equality, equanimity, and justice are not limited to the fissures of Black/white relations, they are gospel values for all people at all times.  The task of theology is to keep the Biblical community and the contemporary community in constant dialogue—and even tension—so we may speak meaningfully about God (Cone 1986). May this month refresh your hunger for Justice, and your thirst for Righteousness.

Peace Is Possible,

+Donalson

 

Bishop Edward Donalson, III | Director of Liturgy and Worship | Assistant Clinical Professor SCHOOL OF THEOLOGY AND MINISTRY | SEATTLE UNIVERSITY

Works Cited

Cone, James H. 1986. A Black Theology of Liberation. Maryknoll: Orbis.

Cone, James. 2011. The Cross and The Lynching Tree. Maryknoll: Orbis.

Douglas, Kelly Brown. 1999. Sexuality and the Black Church. Maryknoll: Orbis Books.

—. 1994. The Black Christ. MaryKnoll: Orbis Books.

Hopkins, Dwight N. 1999. Introducing Black theology of Liberaton . Maryknoll: Orbis Books.

Lincoln, C. Eric. 1974. The Black Church Since Franklin. New York: Shocken Books.

Warnock, Raphael G. 2014. The Divided Mind of the Black Church:Theology, Piety, and Public Witness. New York: New York University Press.

 

 

Worship & Liturgy Announcements

A Call to Action

together

“Religion is at its best when man [sic] is asked to develop his [sic] power of reason in order to understand himself and his position in the Universe” (Fromm 1978).

All religions that have contributed value to the larger society are in some way rooted in the ethic of neighbor Love. This ethic is deeply embedded in the Christian tradition; the New Testament explicitly claims the very essence of God is Love, and that Love is humanity’s highest expression of Godliness (1 John 4:7&8). We cannot claim to be truly religious, Christian or otherwise, if we are not functioning manifestations of Love!  If God is Love then Love is God. Volumes of books have been written in an attempt to define Love, and it is an endeavor for which people have given both their careers and lives. bell hooks, echoing Erich Fromm and M. Scott Peck, gives an interesting working definition. She claims Love is the will to extend oneself for the purpose of nurturing one’s or another’s spiritual growth. Love is an act of will: both an intention and an action (hooks 2000).

Our nation has been plunged into a crisis of Love.  Executive orders that completely fly in the face of the neighbor Love ethic have caused some  to be diametrically opposed to everything good and right about religion. The preference of one religion over another in the public square amounts to nothing less than xenophobia. People of honest religious fervor cannot be so aligned to nationalism that they fail to offer a prophetic critique of its dangers. If internationalism based in the ethic of neighbor Love had become more powerful in the later part of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the twentieth century would have been less barbaric, less fascistic, and less chauvinistic (Buschendorf 2014).  When nationalism gets in the way of the ethic of neighbor Love, it becomes the most insidious form of idolatry.  White supremacist capitalist patriarchy cannot be allowed to become normalized for people of faith. There must be in every congregation, mosque, temple, and synagogue a radical call for resistance to bigotry, dominance, exclusion, and marginalization of any kind.  If we fail to de-center hate, we have failed to engage society in the best that religion has to offer.

Viable religion is one that has a working reciprocity with the culture that produces it, or with which it interacts (Townes 1995). It is the unique task and privilege of our religious communities in this epoch to bring to the attention of the masses, an ethic of neighbor Love that will redefine humanity and how we relate to one another in our shared global realities.  As I think about my own religious tradition, I have to echo the words of Dr. King that if today’s Church does not recapture the sacrificial spirit of the early church, it will lose its authenticity, forfeit the loyalty of millions, and be dismissed as an irrelevant social club with no meaning (Jr. 2015). We can by no means afford to sit silently sequestered in our houses of worship content with pious emotionalism nor austere intellectualism. Love opens the whole creation up to life and calls things into being. Love deepens relationships and simultaneously expands our humanity. The more we Love we discover that life is interdependent, interconnected, and indivisible (Spong 1998).  The time has come for people of faith to by word and deed speak truth to power. Any religion that professes to be concerned about people’s souls and is not concerned about the slums that cripple those souls—the economic conditions that stagnate the soul, and the governments that may damn the soul—is a dry, dead, do-nothing religion that should immediately be abandoned (Warnock 2014).  It is incumbent upon each faith community to live into a radical hospitality and an ethic of neighbor Love that turns the world upside down.

 

 

+Donalson

 

Bishop Edward Donalson, III | Director of Liturgy and Worship

SCHOOL OF THEOLOGY AND MINISTRY | SEATTLE UNIVERSITY

Works Cited

Buschendorf, Cornel West with Christa. 2014. Black Prophetic Fire. Boston: Beacon Press.

Fromm, Erich. 1978. Psychoanalysis & Religion. New Haven: YAle University Press.

hooks, bell. 2000. All About Love: New Visions. New York: HarperCollins.

Jr., Martin Luther King. 2015. The Radical King. Edited by Cornel West. Boston: Beacon Press.

Spong, John Shelby. 1998. Why Christianity Must Change or Die. New York: HarperSanFrancisco.

Townes, Emilie M. 1995. In A Blaze of Glory: Womanist Spirituality As Social Witness. Nashville: Abingdon.

Warnock, Raphael G. 2014. The Divided Mind of the Black Church:Theology, Piety, and Public Witness. New York: New York University Press.

 

 

 

Faculty Reflections Worship & Liturgy Announcements

Week of Prayer for Christian Unity

The Week of Prayer for Christian Unity began in the early twentieth century in the Roman Catholic Church and spread quickly to Protestant and Orthodox branches of Christianity. In 1948, with the founding of the World Council of Churches, the Week of Prayer for Christian Unity became increasingly recognized by different churches throughout the world.

The heartbeat of this week focuses on the Church being united as the universal mystical body of Christ. It finds its roots in the prayer of Jesus that His followers be one in the way He experienced oneness with God (St. John 17:21). Somehow in the pursuit of unity, it has been my experience, we have failed to achieve this oneness and digressed to hegemonic displays filled with invitation to sameness, rather than the beautiful equality of oneness.

When I first encountered The Week of Prayer for Christian Unity, I often heard that the worship experiences would be a melting pot of all theological, cultural, and racial perspectives and that this would show how we valued the diversity and unity in God.  The problem I found was that much like a true melting pot all the ingredients were expected to lose their unique flavor with the taste and texture of the dominant culture prevailing. When there have been nods toward difference they have often been nothing more than cultural appropriation that ignores the lived realities and experiences that have given birth to the traditions. Sanitizing hymnody is nothing more than a sacrifice on the altar of political correctness; it is not unity. At best it is conformity.

To consider culture in our worship experience is more than changing the picture of Jesus or Mary on the front covers of our worship aids or advertisements.  It is not enough to invite a Gospel choir to sing a selection or two and call it unity. Culture is the basis of all ideas, images, and actions. To move culturally is to move by a set of values given to you by your culture.  The basic criteria for culture include mythology, history, social organization, political organization, creative motif, and ethos (Cone 1997). If our unity services are to be truly reflective of the oneness of the Body of Christ, some weighty matters need to be considered.

As we reimagine the potential of our gatherings for The Week of Prayer for Christian Unity we might consider the task of the church. Fundamentally the Church refers to the communal gathering around washing, texts, and meal, as these are interpreted as having to do with Jesus Christ, and yet it is so much more (Lathrup 1993).  It is the place where people develop their power of reason to understand themselves, their relationship to others, and their position in the universe in light of the teachings of Jesus (Fromm 1978).  This constitutes an invitation to discover and celebrate not just our differences, our unique gifts, but what makes us different and how those differences play a major part in the whole.

What we should vision for the Week of Prayer for Christian Unity this year and beyond is not so much a melting pot, but perhaps a tossed salad. Each ingredient bringing its own unique flavor separate, distinct, and perfect. When these ingredients come together, they make one delicious offering where no one is diminished and no flavor appropriated. Unity in not about sameness, unity is an act of solidarity. We are called to be one with, even when we are not one of. Seeing and acknowledging the difference allows each to be truly known and understood, while being valuable as a contribution to the whole. Perhaps this week rather than focus on Jesus as coming to die on the cross our attention should be focused on Jesus who showed redemption through a perfect ministerial vision of righting relationships (J. Cone 2011).

Peace Is Possible,

+Donalson

 

Bishop Edward Donalson, III | Director of Liturgy and Worship | Assistant Clinical Professor

Works Cited

Cone, James H. 1997. Black Theology and Black Power. Maryknoll: Orbis Books.

Cone, James. 2011. The Cross and The Lynching Tree. Maryknoll: Orbis.

Fromm, Erich. 1978. Psychoanalysis & Religion. New Haven: YAle University Press.

Lathrup, Gordon W. 1993. Holy Things. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

 

 

 

 

 

Worship & Liturgy Announcements

Church and Politics

In times of national unrest, it seems to me that people turn their attention to matters of the heart, and churches, mosques, and synagogues become places of refuge from the upheaval of the times.  As the inauguration of a new American president draws near, religious institutions such as churches, seminaries and schools of theology have a unique opportunity to be the voice of comfort, reason, and justice.

Politics is the ancient and honorable endeavor that creates a community in which the weak, as well as the strong, can flourish, love and power can collaborate, and justice and mercy can have their day (Palmer 2011).  Our task, as practitioners of the sacred, is to assist people in plumbing the depths of their own humanity, where transcendence, mystery, being and even love are discovered, and further to bring those qualities found in the center of life into the world (Spong 1998). Our corporate worship is indeed in many ways very political; they are experiences of the community, for the community, by the community.

In the Christian tradition the Eucharist has been a visible sign not only of the union between believers and Christ, but also the unity of believers in Christ. In the early church it gave Christians constant access to communion with Christ and also communion and fellowship with one another. It was a sense of mystical unity that crossed all ethnic and socioeconomic borders—neither slave nor free, neither Greek nor Jew, male nor female—a unity that was not abstract, nor was it made by coercion or force.  No political allegiance before had ever achieved this kind of community, nor has it since (Pecknold 2010). At the heart of Christian gathering is that which transcends political reality and reminds each congregant of the humanness of all.

As we navigate the days ahead we are tasked with helping our congregations adjust to a new normal while still holding hope and a picture of a preferable future. We recognize that we will, on this journey, experience a wide range of emotions: surprise, disbelief, excitement, doubt, joy, and also reassurance.  This is a gift to shake up our thinking, engender new insights, and strengthen our commitments. We will be reminded at many points along our journey that our faith is rooted in a paradox, because the cross is a religious symbol that inverts the world’s value system with the news that hope comes by way of defeat, that suffering and death do not have the last word, and that the last shall be first and the first last (Cone 2011).

Worship experiences provide us an opportunity to intentionally engage in empowering our community. We make community by creating religious, educational, health care, philanthropic, political, and familial institutions and professional organizations that enable people to survive (Mitchem 2002).  As you think about your local assembly I challenge you to look for the opportunities to make community. Ask yourself how are you responding to the realities of the moment? Are your parishioners experiencing life affirmation? Is your liturgy challenging enough to meet the rigorous demands of the present social milieu?  When you answer these questions you will understand what your work will be going forward.

Peace Is Possible,

+Donalson

 

Bishop Edward Donalson, III | Director of Liturgy and Worship | Assistant Clinical Professor

 

Works Cited

Cone, James. 2011. The Cross and The Lynching Tree. Maryknoll: Orbis.

Mitchem, Stepahine Y. 2002. Introducing Womanist Theology. MaryKnoll: Orbis.

Palmer, Parker J. 2011. Healing The Heart of Democracy. SanFrancisco: Jossey-Bass.

Pecknold, C.C. 2010. Christianity and Politics: A Brief Guide to History. Eugene: Cascade Books.

Spong, John Shelby. 1998. Why Christianity Must Change or Die. New York: HarperSanFrancisco.

 

 

Worship & Liturgy Announcements

Worship, Art, and Activism

We make and offer art because we worship; not to lead us into worship (Best 2003).  As a function of ascribing worth to the Divine and communicating that worth to others art brings collective into a shared experience. The making and offering of art is sacred because of its intent, content, and direction; it points fully toward a spiritual principle or communal value. It may show some aspect of Divinity or highlight something of humanity, but either way it is valuable as an instrument of expressing worship.  An artist is tasked in some ways of being a propagandist. They create art to convey an idea they want to impress upon the public (Garvey 1986).  This week as we start a new academic quarter at Seattle University and a New Year we have been blessed by one of our students with their amazing art. As you read about the artist and their work my prayer is that you would consider the ways that art might play a role in the worship and liturgy life of your local congregation or national church body.  Please enjoy the work of Barbara Bauml.

 

Peace Is Possible,

+Donalson

 

Bishop Edward Donalson, III | Director of Liturgy and Worship | Assistant Clinical Professor
 

Works Cited

Best, Harold M. 2003. Unceasing Worship: Biblical Perspectives on Worship and the Arts. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press.

Garvey, Marcus. 1986. Message to the People; The course of African Philosophy. Dover: The Majority Press.

 

             

 

About the Artist

 

Barbara Bauml has created art in multiple mediums throughout her life. She finds that art “speaks” in ways that words cannot―both as a mode of expression and as a medium of communication. The subject or theme of her work determine the mediums with which she plays―in this case money, food, and Western tableware. She creates art in realistic and abstract forms using pen and ink, acrylics, graphite, and fabric dyes.

It was a new and interesting experience to use money as a medium. It caused me to reflect on risk, trust, and what I value. I hope it will similarly evoke reflection and discussion in those who view this.

Her esthetic senses grant much appreciation for beauty in everyday life. While painting esthetically pleasing art is nice, she finds that art is more meaningful when it engages others. Creating art within community is especially meaningful.  The feelings, thoughts, and conversations that are experienced enrich life and relationships.

Barbara lives in Graham, Washington. She is married to Timothy Bean, is a mother, step-mother, and grandmother. She works part-time as a counselor and is on the board of the Washington Pastoral Counseling Association. She is currently attending Seattle University earning a Master Degree in Pastoral Studies

 

 

Exploring Money, Values, and Justice

 

A new piece of artwork, “Money, You Can’t Eat It,” has been installed on the ground floor of Hunthausen Hall. This mixed-media sculpture uses the lens of art to view the role and purpose of money in our world. Understanding and exploring the relationships of money to our values, assumptions, goals, and faith is overdue. Therein lies a conversation about our values, justice, and moral courage.

The artist, Barbara Bauml, has created art in multiple mediums throughout her life. Early in her life, painting did not satisfy her curiosity. Making art became more meaningful, however, as a reflection of culture and as a form of self-expression. She finds that art “speaks” in ways that words cannot.

This art, was conceived both as commentary on the value of money and as an invitation to become more aware about how it shapes us―individually and collectively. It is meant to evoke discussion about the ways money influences our choices, financial systems, budgets, etc. Regardless of its forms, money is a figment of our imagination. Barbara asserts that money is better used as an expression of our values than the determinant of the values on which we act.

Two thousand years ago Jesus overturned tables in the Temple courtyard to oppose the injustices perpetrated by the money changers (Mt. 21:12; Mk. 11:15). Making a whip of cords, he drove the cheaters out of temple (Jn. 2:15). The matter of what constitutes a just money system today is still very pertinent. “In discussing money in my family growing up, one comment my father made has always stuck with me: ‘Money is like oxygen, it doesn’t matter much unless there isn’t enough of it.’”

This art invites a discussion of the forms of money and how it shapes our individual and collective lives, and what we can do to promote and participate in creating a fair, moral, and equitable system. As a starting point of reflection, most of the following words were embroidered on the table runner:

Appreciate; Bail-out; Balance; Benefit; Bills & Coins; Blessing; Build; Cash; CDO; CDX; Charity; Choice; Colonization; Commodities; Contribution; Counterfeit money; Create; Credit; Debt; Derivatives; Digital Money; Domination; control & force; Earn; Enough; Equity; Fair Trade; Fiat money; Flow; Follow the money;  Fractional Reserve Banking System; Futures; Gambling; Gift; Glamour; Honesty; Honor; Hospitality; Insurance; Integrity; Intent; Invest; Jubilee; Just; Labor; Loan; Love; Market; Measure; Medium of Exchange; Monopoly; Options; Partnerships; Payment Inkind; Plastic; Produce; Profit; Prosperity; Redeem; Repay; Resourcefulness; Resources; Return; Risk Assessment; Savings; Service; Slavery; Status; Stewardship; Sufficiency; Symbol; Tangible money; Taxes; The “Federal” Reserve, created 1913; Too big to fail; Treasure; Treasury; Trust; Usury; Value; Wealth; Work; Worth.

Worship & Liturgy Announcements

Holy Holidays

Hanukkah, Kwanzaa, Christmas, Las Posadas, Eid-al-Adha, and more; for different faith communities these are the celebrations of December. This is a most festive and joyful time throughout the world, and most of our congregations are places where the spiritual vibrancy of the community comes alive with the traditions and cultures of our congregants. If we are honest, this is precisely where many congregants can become disillusioned with the faith community. For many in our cities and towns cultural identities have become a source of violence and exclusion, and people of faith look to the spiritual community to be an agent of healing for the soul violence they have encountered elsewhere. Everyone wants to be seen and known, i.e., to have a voice. And since many of our churches have become home to people of multiple belongings and intersectional realities, it is easy to feel that the worship life of our local church doesn’t hold the depth of meaning for individuals that we and they would like to experience.

While our liturgy is always about the Divine, it is also about humanity and community. In fact, the Christmas story itself holds the very moment when the Divine breaks forth into humanity to be with and among. For the Christian Church, a given culture’s values and patterns—insofar as they are consonant with the values of the gospel—can be used to express the meaning and purpose of Christian worship (Wilkey 2014).  In other spiritual communities this is also true, provided cultural patterns are consonant with the core tenants of that particular spiritual practice.  As we consider the needs of our human communities this holiday season, we might consider our awareness and inclusion of cultural elements in liturgical design. Culture is important to people’s sense of belonging as it comprises people’s total social heritage, including language, ideas, habits, beliefs, customs, traditions, arts, artifacts, and symbolism (Douglas 1999). In what ways are our congregations, through liturgies and worship experiences, intentional repositories and celebrants of culture?

Faithful community building behavior suggests that each member of the community concerns themselves with the good of the whole community and how their behavior affects that community (Flunder 2005).  As liturgists our responsibility to our communities is to be mindful of the ways in which the worship design both portrays and betrays the gospel narrative. When cultural realities are left out of the equation we run the risk of missing the mark as it relates to our full responsibility.  What would our worship dare to say about God if as we craft our celebrations we take into consideration the full array of God’s people and their particularities.  How might our congregations come to life as together we explore the nature and character of God through the lens of art produced by those in your congregation who do not make up the majority demographic? Perhaps this year our December celebrations will be marked by the self-conscious awareness that all of us are, or can be, God bearers and life givers and that our deepest religious task is to give ourselves away (Spong 1998).  I invite each of us spend a few moments this week contemplating the impact of culture on our liturgies to see how we can expand to include others’ realities.

Peace Is Possible,

+Donalson

 

Bishop Edward Donalson, III | Director of Liturgy and Worship | Assistant Clinical Professor
SCHOOL OF THEOLOGY AND MINISTRY | SEATTLE UNIVERSITY

 

Works Cited

Douglas, Kelly Brown. 1999. Sexuality and the Black Church. Maryknoll: Orbis Books.

Flunder, Yvette A. 2005. Where the Edge Gathers: Building a Community of Radical Inclusion. Cleveland: The Pilgrim Press.

Spong, John Shelby. 1998. Why Christianity Must Change or Die. New York: HarperSanFrancisco.

Wilkey, Gláucia Vasconcelos, ed. 2014. Worship and Culture: Foreign Country or Homeland. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

 

 

Worship & Liturgy Announcements

Jesus Justice and Advent

Advent (from the Latin word adventus, meaning “coming”) is considered to be the beginning of the Christian Church Year for most churches in the Western tradition. This season begins on the fourth Sunday before Christmas Day, which is the Sunday nearest November 30. Advent ends on Christmas Eve (Dec 24). If Christmas Eve occurs on a Sunday, it is counted as the fourth Sunday of Advent, with Christmas Eve proper beginning at sundown. We find ourselves as liturgical theologians and practitioners tasked with the awesome responsibility of countless worship experiences, Christmas concerts, cantatas, and plays. In today’s spiritual and political climate what will our work say this year about Jesus?  For those in the Western Christian tradition Advent is the season that seems to engender the warmest feelings associated with the person and work of Jesus. There is something so full of hope and promise connected to the babe in the manger who would one day be Savior of the world.

This year I would like to invite us to share in the rich liturgical opportunity that Advent offers us as we consider the facts surrounding the birth of this Jesus who is the Christ. Luke’s gospel does an amazing job of situating Jesus’ birth within the historical world of the Roman Empire (Hartin 2011).  Born under the rule of Augustus Caesar it is clear that Jesus is born on the underside of power.  Luke’s narrative also explains the sacrifice offered at the time of Jesus temple dedication; it indicates that Jesus was born a poor Palestinian Jew living under Roman authority. His parents were forced to use doves and pigeons for an offering because they could not afford the sacrifice of the lamb. Not only was Jesus born experiencing poverty, but that poverty was public (Thurman 1996 (original 1949)).  Perhaps the circumstances of Jesus’ birth informed much of the resistance work he would engage throughout His life?

I wonder if this year in our Advent celebrations we might consider those among us who are experiencing the effects of poverty and how we might hold space for lamenting the ways in which our churches may have been complicit in creating poverty for others? What if we took seriously the opportunity to be in solidarity with those people in our global community who for whatever reason live in an occupied land, struggling to maintain their cultural identity?  How could our worship experiences treasure differences and yet find commonalities by pointing to the central figure of our faith to understand how he experienced embodiment (Wilkey 2014)?

My prayer for each of you this Advent is that the gathering, shared meal, shared story, and all that makes your liturgy rich may come alive with the historical Jesus; that we may together find the truth in our tradition and have the courage to be true to the truth. Happy Advent!

Peace Is Possible,

+Donalson

Bishop Edward Donalson, III | Director of Liturgy and Worship | Assistant Clinical Professor

Works Cited

Hartin, Patrick J. 2011. Exploring the Spirituality of the Gospels. Collegeville: Liturgical Press.

Thurman, Howard. 1996 (original 1949). Jesus and the Disinherited . Boston: Beacon Press.

Wilkey, Glaucia Vasconcelos. 2014. Worship and Culture: Foreign Country or Homeland? Grand Rapids : William B Eerdmans Publishing.

 

 

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